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Astronomy From 45,000 Feet

What is the Stratospheric
Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, up to?

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SOFIA, the
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, as our flying telescope is called, is a Boeing 747SP aircraft
that carries a 2.5-meter telescope to altitudes as high as 45,000 feet.
Researchers use SOFIA to study the solar system and beyond using infrared
light. This type of light does not reach the ground, but does reach the
altitudes where SOFIA flies.

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 Recently, we used SOFIA to study water on Venus, hoping to
learn more about how
that planet lost its oceans
. Our researchers used a powerful instrument on
SOFIA, called a spectrograph,
to detect water in its normal form and “heavy water,” which has an extra
neutron. The heavy water takes longer to evaporate and builds up over time. By
measuring how much heavy water is on Venus’ surface now, our team will be able
to estimate how much water Venus had when the planet formed.

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We are also using SOFIA to create a detailed map of the Whirlpool
Galaxy
by making multiple observations of the galaxy. This map will help us
understand how stars form from clouds in that galaxy. In particular, it will
help us to know if the spiral arms in the galaxy trigger clouds to collapse
into stars, or if the arms just show up where stars have already formed.

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We can also use SOFIA to study methane on Mars. The Curiosity rover
has detected methane
on the surface of Mars. But the total amount of methane on Mars is unknown and
evidence so far indicates that its levels change significantly over time and
location. We are using SOFIA to search for evidence of this gas by mapping the Red
Planet with an instrument specially tuned to sniff out methane.

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The
plumes, illustrated in the artist’s concept above, were previously seen
in images as extensions from the edge of the moon. Next our team will use SOFIA to study Jupiter’s icy moon Europa,
searching for evidence of possible
water plumes detected by the Hubble Space Telescope
. The plumes were
previously seen in images as extensions from the edge of the moon. Using SOFIA,
we will search for water and determine if the plumes are eruptions of water
from the surface. If the plumes are coming from the surface, they may be
erupting through cracks in the ice that covers Europa’s
oceans
. Members of our SOFIA team recently discussed studying Europa on the
NASA in
Silicon Valley Podcast
.

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This is the view of Jupiter and its moons taken with SOFIA’s
visible
light guide camera that is used to position the telescope.  

Source: NASA

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Astronomy From 45,000 Feet

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